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HDFS shell命令行

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启动HDFS后,输入hadoop fs命令,即可显示HDFS常用命令的用法 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs 
Usage: hadoop fs [generic options]
    [-appendToFile <localsrc> ... <dst>]
    [-cat [-ignoreCrc] <src> ...]
    [-checksum <src> ...]
    [-chgrp [-R] GROUP PATH...]
    [-chmod [-R] <MODE[,MODE]... | OCTALMODE> PATH...]
    [-chown [-R] [OWNER][:[GROUP]] PATH...]
    [-copyFromLocal [-f] [-p] <localsrc> ... <dst>]
    [-copyToLocal [-p] [-ignoreCrc] [-crc] <src> ... <localdst>]
    [-count [-q] <path> ...]
    [-cp [-f] [-p | -p[topax]] <src> ... <dst>]
    [-createSnapshot <snapshotDir> [<snapshotName>]]
    [-deleteSnapshot <snapshotDir> <snapshotName>]
    [-df [-h] [<path> ...]]
    [-du [-s] [-h] <path> ...]
    [-expunge]
    [-get [-p] [-ignoreCrc] [-crc] <src> ... <localdst>]
    [-getfacl [-R] <path>]
    [-getfattr [-R] {-n name | -d} [-e en] <path>]
    [-getmerge [-nl] <src> <localdst>]
    [-help [cmd ...]]
    [-ls [-d] [-h] [-R] [<path> ...]]
    [-mkdir [-p] <path> ...]
    [-moveFromLocal <localsrc> ... <dst>]
    [-moveToLocal <src> <localdst>]
    [-mv <src> ... <dst>]
    [-put [-f] [-p] <localsrc> ... <dst>]
    [-renameSnapshot <snapshotDir> <oldName> <newName>]
    [-rm [-f] [-r|-R] [-skipTrash] <src> ...]
    [-rmdir [--ignore-fail-on-non-empty] <dir> ...]
    [-setfacl [-R] [{-b|-k} {-m|-x <acl_spec>} <path>]|[--set <acl_spec> <path>]]
    [-setfattr {-n name [-v value] | -x name} <path>]
    [-setrep [-R] [-w] <rep> <path> ...]
    [-stat [format] <path> ...]
    [-tail [-f] <file>]
    [-test -[defsz] <path>]
    [-text [-ignoreCrc] <src> ...]
    [-touchz <path> ...]
    [-usage [cmd ...]]

Generic options supported are -conf <configuration file>     specify an application configuration file -D <property=value>            use value for given property -fs <local|namenode:port> specify a namenode -jt <local|jobtracker:port> specify a job tracker -files <comma separated list of files> specify comma separated files to be copied to the map reduce cluster -libjars <comma separated list of jars>    specify comma separated jar files to include in the classpath. -archives <comma separated list of archives> specify comma separated archives to be unarchived on the compute machines.

The general command line syntax is
bin/hadoop command [genericOptions] [commandOptions] 

帮助相关命令

  • usage

查看命令的用法,例查看ls的用法

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -usage ls Usage: hadoop fs [generic options] -ls [-d] [-h] [-R] [<path> ...]
  • help

查看命令的详细帮助,例查看ls命令的帮助:  

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -help ls
-ls [-d] [-h] [-R] [<path> ...] :
  List the contents that match the specified file pattern. If path is not
  specified, the contents of /user/<currentUser> will be listed. Directory entries
  are of the form:
      permissions - userId groupId sizeOfDirectory(in bytes)
  modificationDate(yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm) directoryName
  
  and file entries are of the form:
      permissions numberOfReplicas userId groupId sizeOfFile(in bytes)
  modificationDate(yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm) fileName
                                                                                 
  -d  Directories are listed as plain files.                                     
  -h  Formats the sizes of files in a human-readable fashion rather than a number
      of bytes.                                                                  
  -R  Recursively list the contents of directories. 

1 查看相关命令

  • ls

查看文件或目录,下例中:hdfs://localhost:9000是fs.defaultFS配置的值,hdfs://localhost:9000/即表示HDFS文件系统中根目录,如果使用的是HDFS文件系统, 可以简写为/。 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls  hdfs://localhost:9000/
Found 3 items
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 hdfs://localhost:9000/input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-31 07:17 hdfs://localhost:9000/input1.txt
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 hdfs://localhost:9000/output

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /
Found 3 items
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-31 07:17 /input1.txt
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output

   选项-R:连同子目录的文件一起列出,例:

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R / drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup 0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input -rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt         --子目录下的文件也被列出
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt -rw-r--r-- 1 hadoop supergroup 14 2015-03-31 07:17 /input1.txt
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup 0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output
  • cat

显示文件内容

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -cat /input1.txt
hello hadoop! hello hadoop!
  • text

将给定的文件以文本的格式输出,允许的格式zip、TextRecordInputStream、Avro。当文件为文本文件时,等同于cat。例:

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -text /input1.txt
hello hadoop!
  • tail

显示文件最后1KB的内容

选项-f:当文件内容增加时显示追加的内容

  • checksum

显示文件的校验和信息。因为需要和存储文件每个块的datanode互相通信,因此对大量的文件使用此命令效率可能会低 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -checksum /input.zip
/input.zip        MD5-of-0MD5-of-0CRC32        00000000000000000000000070bc8f4b72a86921468bf8e8441dce51

>文件及目录相关命令

  • touchz

创建一个空文件,如果存在指定名称的非空文件,则返回错误 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /
Found 3 items
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -touchz /input1.zip
touchz: `/input1.zip': Not a zero-length file        --非空时给出错误提示
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -touchz /input.zip
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /
Found 4 items
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:43 /input.zip   --创建成功
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output

  • appendToFile

向现有文件中追加内容,例: 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -text /input1.txt
hello hadoop!
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -appendToFile ~/Desktop/input1.txt /input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -text /input1.txt  
hello hadoop!
hello hadoop!   --查看追加后的文件内容

  • put

从本地文件系统上传文件到HDFS 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -put ~/Desktop/input1.txt /
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -text /input1.txt     --查看上传后的文件内容
hello hadoop!

选项-f:如果文件已经存在,覆盖已有文件

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -put ~/Desktop/input1.txt / put: `/input1.txt': File exists   --文件已存在时给出错误提示 [hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -put -f ~/Desktop/input1.txt / [hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$     --使用-f选项后没有再报错

选项-p:保留原文件的访问、修改时间,用户和组,权限属性 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ ll ~/input1.txt 
-rw-r--r--. 1 hadoop hadoops 28 Mar 31 08:59 /home/hadoop/input1.txt   --本地文件属性
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ chmod 777 ~/input1.txt    --修改权限为rwxrwxrwx
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -put ~/input1.txt /
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         28 2015-04-02 05:19 /input1.txt   --不使用-p选项,上传后文件属性
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -put -f -p ~/input1.txt /
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /input1.txt
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /input1.txt    --使用-p选项,上传后文件属性

  • get

从HDFS上下载文件到本地,与put不同,没有覆盖本地已有文件的选项 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -get /input1.txt ~
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ cat ~/input1.txt  --查看本地下载的文件
hello hadoop!
hellp hadoop!

  • getmerge

将指定的HDFS中原目录下的文件合并成一个文件并下载到本地,源文件保留 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -text /input/input1.txt
hello hadoop!    --input1.txt内容
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -text /input/input2.txt
welcome to the world of hadoop!    --input2.txt内容
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getmerge /input/ ~/merge.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ cat ~/merge.txt
hello hadoop!        --合并后本地文件的内容
welcome to the world of hadoop!

选项-nl:在每个文件的最后增加一个新行 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getmerge -nl /input/ ~/merge.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ cat ~/merge.txt
hello hadoop!
         --input1.txt增加的新行
welcome to the world of hadoop!
         --input2.txt增加的新行
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ 

  • copyFromLocal

从本地文件系统上传文件到HDFS,与put命令相同

  •  copyToLocal

从HDFS下载文件到本地文件系统,与get命令相同

  • moveFromLocal

与put命令相同,只是上传成功后本地文件会被删除

  •  moveToLocal

该命令还未实现

  •  mv

同linux的mv命令,移动或重命名文件 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /
Found 5 items
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input.zip
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /input1.txt
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 07:10 /text
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -mv /input.zip /input1.zip
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /
Found 5 items
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip  --重命名
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 07:10 /text
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -mv /input1.zip /text/
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /input1.txt
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 07:12 /text
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /text/input1.zip   --移动文件

  • cp

复制文件 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 07:29 /text
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -cp /input1.txt /input.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         28 2015-04-02 07:31 /input.txt   --新复制文件
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 07:29 /text

选项-f:如果文件已存在,覆盖已有文件 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -cp /input1.txt /input.txt
cp: `/input.txt': File exists     --文件已存在时给出错误提示
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -cp -f /input1.txt /input.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$

  • mkdir

创建文件夹 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -mkdir /text
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /
Found 5 items
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        210 2015-03-31 07:49 /input1.txt
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-31 08:23 /text

选项-p:如果上层目录不存在,递归建立所需目录 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -mkdir /text1/text2
mkdir: `/text1/text2': No such file or directory    --上层目录不存在,给出错误提示
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -mkdir -p /text1/text2
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        210 2015-03-31 07:49 /input1.txt
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-31 08:23 /text
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-31 08:26 /text1
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-31 08:26 /text1/text2   --使用-p选项,创建成功

  • rm

删除文件

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -rm /input.zip 15/03/31 08:02:32 INFO fs.TrashPolicyDefault: Namenode trash configuration: Deletion interval = 0 minutes, Emptier interval = 0 minutes.
Deleted /input.zip

选项-r:递归的删除,可以删除非空目录  

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -rm /text
rm: `/text': Is a directory    --删除文件夹时,给出错误提示
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -rm -r /text  --使用-r选项,文件夹及文件夹下文件删除成功
15/04/02 08:28:42 INFO fs.TrashPolicyDefault: Namenode trash configuration: Deletion interval = 0 minutes, Emptier interval = 0 minutes.
Deleted /text

  • rmdir

删除空目录 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -rmdir /output
rmdir: `/output': Directory is not empty     --不能删除非空目录

选项--ignore-fail-on-non-empty:忽略非空删除失败时的提示 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -rmdir --ignore-fail-on-non-empty /output  
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output    --不给出错误提示,但文件未删除
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt

  • setrep 
    改变一个文件的副本数
    
    [hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -stat %r /input.zip
    1    --原副本数
    [hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -setrep  2 /input.zip
    Replication 2 set: /input.zip
    [hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -stat %r /input.zip
    2     --改变后副本数
      选项-w:命令等待副本数调整完成
    
    [hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -setrep -w 1 /input.zip
    Replication 1 set: /input.zip
    Waiting for /input.zip ... done
    [hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -stat %r /input.zip
    1
  • expunge

清空回收站 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -expunge
15/04/03 01:52:46 INFO fs.TrashPolicyDefault: Namenode trash configuration: Deletion interval = 0 minutes, Emptier interval = 0 minutes.

  • chgrp

修改文件用户组 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:43 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output                   --文件原用户组
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -chgrp test /output
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:43 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop test                0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output                     --修改后的用户组(未建立test组,仍可成功)
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt    --目录下文件的用户组未修改

选项-R:递归修,如果是目录,则递归的修改其下的文件及目录 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -chgrp -R testgrp /output
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:43 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop testgrp             0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output            --目录及其下文件都被更改
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop testgrp            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt

  • chmod

修改文件权限,权限模式同linux shell命令中的模式 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:43 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output    --文件原权限
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop supergroup         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -chmod 754 /output
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:43 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr--   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output      --修改后的权限
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop supergroup         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt  --目录下文件的权限未修改
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -chmod -R 775 /output
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:43 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxrwxr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output         --目录及其下文件都被更改
-rwxrwxr-x   1 hadoop supergroup         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt

  • chown

修改文件的用户或组 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:43 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxrwxr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output       --文件原用户和组
-rwxrwxr-x   1 hadoop supergroup         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -chown test /output
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:43 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxrwxr-x   - test   supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output           --修改后的用户(未建立test用户,仍可成功)
-rwxrwxr-x   1 hadoop supergroup         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt    --目录下文件的用户未修改

选项-R:递归修改,如果是目录,则递归的修改其下的文件及目录 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -chown -R testown:testgrp /output
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop  supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop  supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop  supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop  supergroup          0 2015-04-02 08:43 /input.zip
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop  supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxrwxr-x   - testown testgrp             0 2015-04-02 08:34 /output       --目录及其下文件都被更改
-rwxrwxr-x   1 testown testgrp            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt

  • getfacl

显示访问控制列表ACLs(Access Control Lists) 

[hadoop@localhost bin]$ hadoop fs -getfacl /input.zip
# file: /input.zip
# owner: hadoop
# group: supergroup
user::rw-
group::r--
other::r--

选项-R:递归显示 

[hadoop@localhost bin]$ hadoop fs -getfacl -R /input
# file: /input
# owner: hadoop
# group: supergroup
user::rwx
group::r-x
other::r-x

# file: /input/input1.txt
# owner: hadoop
# group: supergroup
user::rw-
group::r--
other::r--

# file: /input/input2.txt
# owner: hadoop
# group: supergroup
user::rw-
group::r--
other::r--

  • setfacl

设置访问控制列表,acls默认未开启,直接使用该命令会报错

[hadoop@localhost bin]$ hadoop fs -setfacl -b /output/input1.txt
setfacl: The ACL operation has been rejected.  Support for ACLs has been disabled by setting dfs.namenode.acls.enabled to false.

开启acls,配置hdfs-site.xml

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ vi etc/hadoop/hdfs-site.xml <property>
    <name>dfs.namenode.acls.enabled</name>
    <value>true</value>
</property>

选项-m:修改acls 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getfacl /output/input1.txt
# file: /output/input1.txt
# owner: testown
# group: testgrp
user::rwx
group::rwx
other::r-x
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -setfacl -m user::rw-,user:hadoop:rw-,group::r--,other::r-- /output/input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getfacl /output/input1.txt
# file: /output/input1.txt
# owner: testown
# group: testgrp
user::rw-
user:hadoop:rw-
group::r--
mask::rw-
other::r--

选项-x:删除指定规则 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -setfacl -m user::rw-,user:hadoop:rw-,group::r--,other::r-- /output/input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getfacl /output/input1.txt
# file: /output/input1.txt
# owner: testown
# group: testgrp
user::rw-
user:hadoop:rw-
group::r--
mask::rw-
other::r--
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -setfacl -x user:hadoop /output/input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getfacl /output/input1.txt
# file: /output/input1.txt
# owner: testown
# group: testgrp
user::rw-
group::r--
mask::r--
other::r--

以下选项未做实验

选项-b:基本的acl规则(所有者,群组,其他)被保留,其他规则全部删除.

选项-k:删除缺省规则

  •  setfattr

设置扩展属性的名称和值

选项-n:属性名称      选项-v:属性值     

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getfattr -d /input.zip
# file: /input.zip
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -setfattr -n user.web -v www.baidu.com /input.zip
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getfattr -d /input.zip
# file: /input.zip
user.web="www.baidu.com"

选项-x:删除扩展属性 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getfattr -d /input.zip
# file: /input.zip
user.web="www.baidu.com"
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -setfattr -x user.web /input.zip
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getfattr -d /input.zip
# file: /input.zip

  • getfattr

显示扩展属性的名称和值

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getfattr -d /input.zip # file: /input.zip user.web="www.baidu.com" user.web2="www.google.com"

选项-n:显示指定名称的属性值

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -getfattr -n user.web /input.zip# file: /input.zip user.web="www.baidu.com" 

统计相关命令

  • count

显示指定文件或目录的:DIR_COUNT、FILE_COUNT、CONTENT_SIZE、 FILE_NAME,分别表示:子目录个数(如果指定路径是目录,则包含该目录本身)、文件个数、使用字节个数,以及文件或目录名。 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         28 2015-04-02 07:32 /input.txt
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 07:29 /text
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -count /
           4            5                286 /

选项-q:显示配额信息(在多人共用的情况下,可以通过限制用户写入目录,并设置目录的quota ,防止不小心就把所有的空间用完造成别人无法存取的情况)。配额信息包括:QUOTA、REMAINING_QUOTA、SPACE_QUOTA、REMAINING_SPACE_QUOTA,分别表示某个目录下档案及目录的总数、剩余目录或文档数量、目录下空间的大小、目录下剩余空间。

计算公式:

QUOTA – (DIR_COUNT + FILE_COUNT) = REMAINING_QUOTA;

SPACE_QUOTA – CONTENT_SIZE = REMAINING_SPACE_QUOTA。

none和inf表示未配置。 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -count -q /
9223372036854775807 9223372036854775798            none             inf            4            5                286 /

  • du

显示文件大小,如果指定目录,会显示该目录中每个文件的大小 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:19 /input
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         14 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         32 2015-03-27 19:19 /input/input2.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup         28 2015-04-02 07:32 /input.txt
-rwxrwxrwx   1 hadoop hadoops            28 2015-03-31 08:59 /input1.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 hadoop supergroup        184 2015-03-31 08:14 /input1.zip
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-03-27 19:16 /output
drwxr-xr-x   - hadoop supergroup          0 2015-04-02 07:29 /text
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -du /
46   /input
28   /input.txt
28   /input1.txt
184  /input1.zip
0    /output
0    /text

选项-s:显示总的统计信息,而不是显示每个文件的信息 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -du -s /
286  /

  • df

检查文件系统的磁盘空间占用情况 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -df /
Filesystem                    Size   Used   Available  Use%
hdfs://localhost:9000  18713219072  73728  8864460800    0%

  • stat

显示文件统计信息。

格式: %b - 文件所占的块数; %g - 文件所属的用户组 ;%n - 文件名; %o - 文件块大小;%r - 备份数 ;%u - 文件所属用户;%y - 文件修改时间 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -stat %b,%g,%n,%o,%r,%u,%y /input.zip
0,supergroup,input.zip,134217728,1,hadoop,2015-04-02 15:43:24

快照命令

  • createSnapshot

创建快照,

附:官方文档 http://hadoop.apache.org/docs/r2.5.2/hadoop-project-dist/hadoop-hdfs/HdfsSnapshots.html

snapshot(快照)是一个全部文件系统、或者某个目录在某一时刻的镜像。创建动作仅仅是在目录对应的Inode上加个快照的标签,不会涉及到数据块的拷贝操作,也不会对读写性能有影响,但是会占用namenode一定的额外内存来存放快照中被修改的文件和目录的元信息 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /output
-rwxrwxr-x   1 testown testgrp         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -createSnapshot /output s1
createSnapshot: Directory is not a snapshottable directory: /output   --直接创建给出错误
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hdfs dfsadmin -allowSnapshot /output  --对开启某一目录的快照功能
Allowing snaphot on /output succeeded
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -createSnapshot /output s1  --创建快照
Created snapshot /output/.snapshot/s1
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls -R /output
-rwxrwxr-x   1 testown testgrp         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /output/.snapshot/s1
Found 1 items
-rwxrwxr-x   1 testown testgrp         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/.snapshot/s1/input1.txt  --查看快照

  • renameSnapshot

重命名快照 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /output/.snapshot/s1Found 1 items
-rwxrwxr-x   1 testown testgrp         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/.snapshot/s1/input1.txt  --原快照
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -renameSnapshot /output/ s1 s2[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /output/.snapshot/s2
Found 1 items
-rwxrwxr-x   1 testown testgrp         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/.snapshot/s2/input1.txt    --新快照

  • deleteSnapshot

删除快照 

[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /output/.snapshot/s2
Found 1 items
-rwxrwxr-x   1 testown testgrp         28 2015-03-31 08:59 /output/.snapshot/s2/input1.txt
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -deleteSnapshot /output/ s2
[hadoop@localhost hadoop-2.5.2]$ hadoop fs -ls /output/.snapshot/s2
ls: `/output/.snapshot/s2': No such file or directory

HDFS shell命令行


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