Evidently, the perceivability of humans and an electronic device like a computer is different. Humans can understand anything through the natural languages, but a computer doesn’t. The computer needs a translator to convert the languages written in the human readable form to the computer readable form.
Compiler and interpreter are the types of language translator. What is Language translator? This question might be arising in your mind.
A language translator is a software which translates the programs from a source language that are in human readable form into an equivalent program in an object language. The source language is usually a high-level programming language, and the object language is typically the machine language of an actual computer.
|Basis for comparison||Compiler||Interpreter|
It takes an entire program at a time.
||It takes a single line of code or instruction at a time.|
|Output||It generates intermediate object code.||It does not generate any intermediate object code.|
||The compilation is done before execution.||Compilation and execution take place simultaneously.|
||Memory requirement is more due to the creation of object code.||It requires less memory as it does not create intermediate object code.|
||Display all errors after compilation, all at the same time.||Displays error of each line one by one.|
|Error detection||Difficult||Easier comparatively|
Pertaining Programming languages
||C, C++, C#, Scala, typescript uses compiler.||Java, PHP, Perl, Python, Ruby uses an interpreter.|
A compiler is a program that reads a program written in the high-level language and converts it into the machine or low-level language and reports the errors present in the program. It converts the entire source code in one go or could take multiple passes to do so, but at last, the user gets the compiled code which is ready to execute.
Compiler operates on phases; various stages can be grouped into two parts that are:
Now let’s understand the working of each stage in detail.
The symbol table is somewhat a data structure which manages the identifiers along with the relevant type of data it is storing. Error Handler detect, report, correct the errors encountering in between the different phases of a compiler.
The interpreter is a different way of implementing a programming language and does the same work as a compiler. Interpreter performs lexing, parsing and type checking similar to a compiler. But interpreter processes syntax tree directly to evaluate expressions and execute statement instead of generating code from the syntax tree.
An interpreter may require processing same syntax tree more than once that is the reason why interpretation is comparatively slower than executing the compiled program.
Compilation and interpretation probably combined to implement a programming language. In which a compiler generates intermediate-level code then the code is interpreted rather than compiled to machine code.
Using an interpreter is very useful during program development, where the most important part is to be able to test a program modification rapidly rather than run the program efficiently.
Let’s look at major differences between Compiler and Interpreter.
Compiler and interpreter both are intended to do the same work but differ in operating procedure, Compiler takes source code in an aggregated way whereas Interpreter takes constituent parts of source code, i.e., statement by statement.
Although both compiler and interpreter have certain advantages and disadvantages like Interpreted languages are considered as cross-platform, i.e., the code is portable. It also doesn’t need to compile instruction previously unlike compiler which is time-saving. Compiled languages are faster regarding compilation process.
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